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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

去年,在报名参考的139万人中,只有93万人最终进入了考场。

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“有个人给老板发了个短信,说他要离职了。”
此外,有6个地区的GDP增速低于7%,其中东北的辽宁省以负增长垫底。
“五位一体”总体布局:经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设

as朝向,soci(同伴,社会)-成为同伴-联合
1.世界杯赛期间的一整个月电视遥控器都由我控制。
modest

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

供给不足配套不够 激活“夜经济”如何破题

3.葡萄牙波尔图
在排行榜19年历史上,这是首次出现由两所院校包揽这两项排名头两名的情况。
The report didn't comment on potential factors influencing the numbers, but many – including members of the opposing political party – are laying the blame squarely at the feet of government cost-cutting.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

However, the figures suggest that the pace of Chinese investment in western economies may be slowing.
中共中央纪律检查委员会表示,中国正准备与其他国家签署更多双边或多边协议,并将加强信息交流和联合调查,尤其是与美国、加拿大和澳大利亚等西方国家在一些重大或独立个案上的合作。
特斯拉是一款富人车。在均价85,000美元的水平线上,可以说买特斯拉的人没人会在意汽油钱。特斯拉在续航里程上的短板,也说明了它绝对不会是车主家里的唯一一辆车。如果这些人的新鲜劲儿过去了,特斯拉的订单储备就会缩水,也会像其它厂商一样需要为销量打拼。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 'The market for colored diamonds is really, really high, because they are so rare,' he said.
  • 海南暂停富力红树湾项目所有商品房销售
  • 难怪各银行开始变得有创造力。
  • 北京清代房屋起火 文物安全排查启动
  • 消费力大大降低 家具行业进入“销库存时代”
  • 虽然有17%的毕业生将创业列为同等最重要的原因,但他们中只有2%的人将此视为自己唯一主要的目标。然而,学员身上的创业精神明显在增强,超过四分之一的毕业生(26%)称在就读EMBA期间或毕业后创办了自己的公司。
    1. The remote control belongs to me for the whole month.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 揭济南房贷内情:最严房贷令地产商寸步难行, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

楼市新政效应分化 一线城市销量上涨明显

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

天津:11月起钢铁水泥行业排污须持证

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) produced its Worldwide Cost of Living 2016 report, ranking countries based on the cost of various products and services.
    会。2018年,美国总统特朗普将通过对中国采取惩罚性行动,来兑现他在竞选时许下的部分保护主义诺言。最可能的触发因素将是特朗普政府委托的、对中国涉嫌窃取知识产权的官方调查报告,以及中国补贴钢铁和铝生产的行为。在其贸易团队的敦促下,特朗普可能会下令采取报复性措施,其中包括征收惩罚性关税。此举是否会标志着贸易战打响第一枪,将取决于中国如何反应。如果中国决定征收报复性关税,或者把美国告上世贸组织(WTO),将标志着敌对状态的开始。
  • 纳粹势力席卷西欧,一场入侵迫在眉睫,然而一方面民众毫无准备,一方面国王还心存怀疑,认为王位陷入了自己党派设下的阴谋之中。丘吉尔必须承受至暗时刻,团结全国,改写世界的历史进程。
    Bored with your day-to-day life? It’s time to go on an adventure and refresh yourself! The Antarctic is undoubtedly a good choice. Watching native penguins playing and seeing millions of seabirds flying across the sky is much more exciting than watching TV documentaries. Imagine how cool and fascinating it is to be in a world of majestic icebergs and unexplored mountain ranges. But remember, it’s a polar region, so prepare well before you set off. Insulated boots, warm coats, gloves, wool socks and hats are a must.
    你是不是今年遇到过一些糟糕的面试?这项调查肯定能让你振奋起来,除非你恰好也经历过类似窘境。人力资源公司OfficeTeam要求来自北美的600名管理者描述他们在2014年见过的最令人尴尬的面试失误。以下是他们给出的答案。
    4.Virtual Assistant: 17.6 percent increase
    A separate Caixin PMI tracking growth in China’s services sector is slated for release on Tuesday.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 蛇口公馆获批预售许可 万科:10日内确定摇号方案并开盘
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 9月北京市场有望回升 楼市积极备战金九

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

The report said."It is important to balance economic measures of societal progress with measures of subjective well-being to ensure that economic progress leads to broad improvements across life domains, not just greater economic capacity," the report said.
对投资者而言,今年对行业的准确判断还只是个小问题,因为除了美股,今年全球的投资好选择不多。
If you work hard and benefit the company you work for, you deserve to be rewarded for that. If your boss hasn't given you a raise in the last two years, ask for one. If he or she says no, get out now.
时间:2011-11-04 编辑:Lily
n. 没精打采的样子,耷拉,笨人 v. 没精打采地站,坐
That deceleration could prove a spoiler to broader growth if it continues apace, as observers have attributed sustained activity growth among manufacturers to stronger domestic demand.
报告指出,大连万达集团主席王健林以321亿美元的个人财富荣登榜首,而马云的个人财富在2015年上涨了41%。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Paris is the only Eurozone country in the top 10, and sees a drop of three places, which the report says may be due to falling confidence in the euro.
  • 佛山取公积金交房租 手机上就能申请
  • Since 2005, the business book of the year award has gone to the book that provides “the most compelling and enjoyable insight into modern business issues”. The 2014 winner was Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty.
    “我们做事情不是为了追求利润,我们做事情,是因为这些事情是正确和公正的,”库克咆哮道。他说,不管是为了人权、可再生能源还是为有特殊需求的人们提供帮助,“我不考虑该死的投资回报率”。“直截了当地跟你说,如果这是你考虑的硬性因素……那你还是把苹果股票卖了吧。”库克的语气严厉,毫不妥协,那是苹果员工或许永远不希望面对的一个声音。
  • 6月房价涨势放缓 地王致一线城市环比涨幅放大
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • "Martial arts are highlighted in the TV series. The actors performed real kung fu," a Douban user Weishenmeyaoxuefa said.
    Data also showed that the average salary for the top 100 colleges on the rankings increased by 1,818 yuan over last year, up 22.8 percent.
  • 1.You Aren't Learning Anything New
    4. We were wrong - the testes are connected to the immune system after all. Researchers have discovered a "very small door" that allows the testes to send one-way signals to the immune system, and it could explain why some men struggle with infertility, and why certain cancer vaccines keep failing.
  • And in the UK, could this be the year that the big consultancies make proper inroads into the legal market Will other “alternative business structures” — aka purveyors of “Tesco law” — finally gain a toehold at the consumer end by offering fixed-fee services, putting work out to tender to loose networks of lawyers, or cranking up the legal chatbot for instant, affordable advice Someone has to bust this sector open for the sake of the average citizen.
    Global smartphone shipments reached 1.47 billion units in 2016, up by 2.3 percent from last year, said IDC.
  • What? Hasn't his firm made enough money off Bernanke's cheap money printing? So he's blaming 'lower growth on fiscal austerity, ' even as Bernanke keeps blowing up the Fed's balance-sheet bubble by trillions under the delusion he's America's savior because our dysfunctional Congress failed?
    詹妮弗?劳伦斯如今是好莱坞最炙手可热的年轻女演员之一,所以她成为众多男人心中无法抗拒的女人一点也不让人惊讶。
    [r?b]
  • Moonlight, an evocative coming of age story about a young gay black man, won best picture at the 2017 Oscars but was almost denied its victory in chaotic scenes when the award was mistakenly given to La La Land.
    Saif held the highest position among the five ranked Chinese schools, just ahead of Guanghua School of Management and Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management, 17th and 18th respectively.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 土地流拍率上升体现了对市场的尊重 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

东莞10748套公租房已基本分完

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

有人上浮有人打折 沪上首套房贷款利率分化

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

万科跨界结盟家具电商 房子家具两相宜

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

11月份百城新建住宅均价涨幅回落 三四线城市收窄幅度最显着

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 该杂志称,他的净资产为35亿美元,与前一年相比缩水了10亿美元。
  • Leading the pack of the best airlines for holiday travel is Hawaiian Airlines, followed by another Pacific Coast-focused carrier, Alaska Airlines. Conversely, the worst airline for holiday travel is New York-based JetBlue Airways, with ExpressJet, a regional carrier, coming in next to last, according to the FlightAware data.
  • 北京房山1244套共有产权房周四摇号

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The end of November is here. As I wrote Monday, recent history suggests nine teams have pretty much already been knocked out of playoff contention. Yet, none of them are straight-up tanking.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • [in'tennli]
    Entrepreneur Pat Crowley, the hydrologist who invented the Chapul cricket protein bar, used Bigcommerce to validate early interest in his products and build the momentum to negotiate deals with health food stores and supermarkets. The team recently recommitted toBigcommerce, despite a compelling opportunity to switch to the Shopify platform for far less money. “We don’t think we will outgrow them anytime soon,” he said.
    The residents of the Hankou Binjiang estate had been moved out weeks before.
  • 美国国家篮球协会(NBA)近日宣布,NBA全球赛将在中国举办两场金州勇士队对明尼苏达森林狼队的季前赛。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • NPLs rose from 1.25 per cent of total loans to 1.67 per cent by the end of 2015, amounting to Rmb1.27tn held by commercial banks.
  • 美国家具电商Wayfair将新建4万平大客服中心
  • Change is also under way at Bain & Company, which announced in November that Manny Maceda will become its global leader in March, the first of Asian heritage, and taking the reins of the Boston-based consultancy from Bob Bechek. Experts say Mr Maceda could be instrumental in helping the firm carve out new areas of expertise and edge away from its reputation as a generalist provider.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 北京鑫福里小区 拆迁户两栋楼常年脏乱
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2013中国国际低碳产业博览会在京结“硕果”
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

住建部公布145家核准房地产一级开发资质企业

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 深圳:短租公寓1天 骗取3月租金
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 家具业寒潮波及上游 南兴装备业绩下滑
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

除了《地心引力》和《美国骗局》,我还选出了其他一些口碑不错的影片(按字母顺序排列):

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

这条推文也是今年人们“点赞最多”的推文,收获的赞达459万个。
总部位于纽约的世界品牌实验室编纂并于上周一发布了《2016世界品牌500强》榜单,苹果公司夺得了第一名的宝座。
Despite the breakthrough, Jack Ma, chairman of Alibaba Group, said there was no need for human beings to fear machines.
1. 热爱自己的事业。
3. oDesk&Elance
n. 信用,荣誉,贷款,学分,赞扬,赊欠,贷方
5. Hong Kong, China-A junk boat set against the famous skyline might be the iconic shot of Hong Kong, but Lonely Planet picked the territory for its natural heritage miles away from Victoria Harbor.
提供就业指导工作的北京新锦程研究院的执行院长张景岫表示,他并没看到高校学生的创业意向有降低的趋势,但是他承认学生的自主创业意向很低。
此外,他指出,鉴于中国正在努力推动本国经济从出口转向消费的再平衡(从而减少对中间投入品的进口需求),再加上“中国政府鼓励使用国内供应商的政策”和其他地区保护主义的兴起,“全球贸易在短期内不太可能回暖”。
‘The Mindy Project’ It doesn’t matter that Mindy Kaling’s comedy on Fox is in its third season and still not a hit, because it keeps improving with age. It has grown from a one-comedian showcase into a very funny ensemble effort, thanks in part to the addition of Adam Pally in Season 2 and jokes about Ms. Kaling’s alma mater, Dartmouth.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

“地产乔布斯”发起行业革命 绿城电商助力建材领域反腐

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 9. “Creed”(Ryan Coogler)
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 我的核心价值观是什么?作为一个人,对你来说什么是重要的?家庭、健康、信仰、工作还是其他?确保在你的生活中,你追寻了自己最在乎的东西。
  • 美涂士与东易日盛成功联姻
  • New Year should be a time of banked-up fines, the scent of flowers and wine, good talk, good memories and loyalties renewed. But if all else is lacking - love will do.新年是这样美好的时光:炉火熊熊,花儿芬芳,醇酒飘香,殷殷祝福,美好回忆,恩爱日新。即便没有一切,只要有爱便足矣。
  • 卫浴行业告别爆发式增长时代 工程市场成必争之地
  • The 'Divergent' Star Shailene Woodley top the list of most beautiful women of 2015. The young Hollywood star found breakthrough success in The Descendants (2011). She was considered one of the “55 Faces of the Future” by Nylon Magazine's Young Hollywood Issue.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 业主电梯“惊魂” 诉物业获赔6000多元
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 7. “Out 1: Noli Me Tangere”(Jacques Rivette)
  • 然而,澳大利亚和西班牙学校表现不错。这两个国家分别有3所学校上榜,且排名均有上升。悉尼的麦考瑞大学管理学院(Macquarie Graduate School of Management)是澳大利亚排名最高的学府,排在第49位,而西班牙IE商学院(IE Business School)的排名上升4个位次,排在第8位,这是这所位于马德里的学校自2012年以来首次回到前10名。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

全国住建工作会发出2019房地产重要信号

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